Art of Progress

As I wrote in my last essay, real world evidence (RWE)  generated from “big” real world data (RWD) is upending the hegemony of traditional randomized controlled trials and the evidence hierarchy. RWE is being used for epidemiological evidence to identify targets for drug development, for safety surveillance of approved medical products, for examining changes in patterns… Continue reading Art of Progress

Shattered Mirrors

Ibn Khaldun, the 15th century North African historian, wrote  “the past resembles the future more than one drop of water resembles another.” Implying that the patterns and lessons of the past are applicable to the present and can be applied to  predict the future.  Explanations and predictions are the outputs of science and the scientific… Continue reading Shattered Mirrors

Works somewhere…works everywhere?

The enlightenment philosopher David Hume wrote, “in our reasonings concerning matter of fact, there are all imaginable degrees of assurance, from the highest certainty to the lowest species of moral evidence. A wise man, therefore, proportions his belief to the evidence.” As I wrote in my last essay, the scientific method built on evidence, has… Continue reading Works somewhere…works everywhere?

Evidence of, Evidence for

In the human world, ideas and concepts are more robust and impactful than anything organic or material. Concepts and ideas often outlive their originators. As culture, language and their embedded concepts multiply and diverge, exchange and reconvene, they shape our world in unpredictable ways. One concept that has evolved to loom over all aspects of… Continue reading Evidence of, Evidence for

Intuitions in the Wild

In reality, there are probably no wild places remaining. The watering hole has a water tank and fences, the lions have identification tags, and are largely habituated to the gawking tourists with binoculars. Analogously, the emergency department has protocols, clinical guidelines, and triage scores. Both environments are semi-wild; neither completely open and wild nor fully closed… Continue reading Intuitions in the Wild

Wild Places

In the Tale of a Springbok, I narrated the story of a springbok approaching an empty but hot desert watering hole in Etosha National Park, unaware of the two lionesses sitting underneath the bush in the periphery. As the scene unfolded, I anthropomorphized and looked on with mixed feelings vacillating from suspense and excitement to… Continue reading Wild Places

A Tale of a Springbok

In my last essay, I wrote about the bold (if foolish) springbok who left the safety of the herd and made his way to the watering hole on a sweltering Namibian day. Although he seemed to be aware and on the lookout for theoretical lions as he episodically and intently scanned the periphery, he was… Continue reading A Tale of a Springbok

Unknown Unknowns

Picture a late morning scene at a watering hole in Etosha National Park in Namibia. The sun is getting close to its apex position in the sky, its fierce rays pierce through the cloudless sky onto the ground.  All types of animals from a family of majestic African elephants to a tower of leggy giraffes… Continue reading Unknown Unknowns

The Present of Things Past

As stated in one of Zeno’s nine paradoxes, an arrow in flight is “somewhere” and “somewhere in transit”, implying the flow of time as a continuum. Thereafter, approximately a thousand years after Zeno, the theologian Augustine of Hippo attempted to categorize time by writing, “perhaps it would be exact to say: there are three times -… Continue reading The Present of Things Past

The Single Aim

Evolutionary biologist Leslie Orgel’s second rule of biology states that “evolution is smarter than you are.” Evolution and its mechanisms can explain much of the seemingly boundless complexity and organization evident in biological ecosystems. As I discussed in my last essay, biological evolution with its objective function of survival and reproduction driven by the processes… Continue reading The Single Aim

Problem of the Criterion

In the 1930s, the evolutionary biologist, Sewall Wright, developed the concept of the fitness (adaptive) landscape as a visualization of evolution. The fitness landscape, conceived as a topographic map that resembles a mountain range with peaks and valleys, described different phenotypes of an organism that can vary over a continuous range of genotypes. The vertical… Continue reading Problem of the Criterion

Culture Clash

William Faulkner wrote, “all human behavior is unpredictable, and considering man’s frailty...and the ramshackle universe he functions in, it’s all irrational.” Despite this claim, scientists from disciplines ranging from economics and mathematics to anthropology and psychology have laboriously attempted to uncover patterns within the morass. Game theory is one such approach that starts with the… Continue reading Culture Clash

Similarities in Dissimilars

The name Homo sapiens was applied by the 18th-century taxonomist Carolus Linnaeus in 1758. Sapien - the wise - suggests that the defining attribute of our species is a distinct and unparalleled cognition. We think differently from all other animals, and we are able to share those thoughts with one another in ways that are… Continue reading Similarities in Dissimilars

I err, therefore I am

When talking about the human mental capabilities, in The Symbolic Species, Terrence Deacon stated that “biologically, we are just another ape. Mentally, we are new phylum of organism.”  This wondrous and unfathomably complex organ - the brain -  has enabled us to become the most dominant species of the planet. With a unique capacity to… Continue reading I err, therefore I am

The Zombie Zone

The term circadian is derived from Latin to mean “about a day.” Organisms ranging from single-cell organisms and plants to sea slugs and humans demonstrate circadian rhythms near twenty-hour patterns. In humans, numerous physiological and behavioral processes demonstrate circadian rhythms but the sleep-wake rhythm is one of the most important and observable cyclical rhythms.  The… Continue reading The Zombie Zone